Elite Perceptions of Poverty

Why is poverty not an urgent priority for the Bangladeshi elite? Naomi Hossain, author of Elite Perceptions of Poverty in Bangladesh (UPL 2005), offers three explanations. First, and most importantly, because poverty presents no imminent threat to elite well-being through, for example, crime, epidemic disease, revolt or insurrection. Second, lack of faith in the state discourages support for stronger state action on poverty. And third, the elite appear to believe that appropriate action is already being taken on poverty, including through NGO interventions and private charity.

It’s easy to forget that to outsiders, the poverty that surrounds us, even on the leafy streets of super-deluxe Gulshan, comes as a horrible shock, with which many struggle to cope. People cope in different ways. Western psychologists have a theory that people often blame the victims of social injustices (such as poverty) for their plight. The ironically-named ‘Just World Theory’ says that blaming the victim is the only way some people can cope with the fact that the world is a terribly unfair and unpredictable place. Looking at how well the Bangladeshi rich and powerful live, apparently at ease amidst the most extreme forms of deprivation and squalor, suggests they must possess such a way of thinking. The visitors who typically experience ‘culture shock’ when they first arrive are just as horrified by what they see as the vast gap between the starvelings and waifs of the street and the callous, careless, rich elite.

[…]

One feature peculiar to Bangladeshi society is that the elite are not (yet) in a distinctly separate physical or social space to the majority of the poor – although the distance is visibly growing. In Bangladesh, the poor are always with us. They do the grubby and heavy work in the big houses. They share the language and many the religion and culture of those who take the big decisions and control the major resources – the elite, that is. Many of those elites also have personal ties to people or places in which they can see firsthand how the poor subsist. Bangladeshi elite society still looks favourably on people who maintain a rural desher-bari home, and who build clinics or schools for the poor of ‘their’ village. Many, many people run small charities or schemes intended to help the poor and have poor relatives who visit to tell their troubles and to ask for help.

In this NewAge article, Naomi Hossain unravels how Dhaka’s ostentatious elite perceive the wretched poverty that surrounds them.

172 Responses to “Elite Perceptions of Poverty”

  1. Tahir Says:

    Interesting.

    In my experience talking to a lot of folks that end up working in NGOs in Dhaka end up saying that in Dhaka it is customary for a rich man to open a business or be an academic and his wife to found an NGO. It’s kinda like her hobby or perhaps their way of feeling less guilt about poverty around them.

    The way we do work with the poor in Bangladesh is still far too close to the way the middle class did philanprophy in the UK at the turn of the 19th century. In fact it’s not that different from the behavour of the wives of the white colonial administrators - in the end they all got bored talking about whether their servents were stealing their coffee and needed to find some time to volunteer and do a worthy deed.

    No - allieviating poverty has got to be more professional than charitable service that the rich want to do to feel better. Professionalism and its associated ethics of meritocracy comes from the need to carry out a job and from earning a living. Too many of these people in NGOs in Bangladesh don’t need to earn a living - they just do it for other reasons. In fact it’s not that different then to the UK NGO scene - to get into this sector one has to be able to volunteer to get experience or take a gap year out in India. By definition only the middle class and the elite will be able to do this.

    Even though many of these NGOs talk about ‘participation’ very few can define it, most end up saying, ‘it means helping the poor..”

    Why is poverty not an urgent priority for the Bangladeshi elite?

    The Bangladeshis elite is more conservative than the elites of Europe or America. I don’t know why but they just are. How do I know? By the music they listen to .

  2. sid Says:

    Tahir, you might be right. But before you can measure the effectiveness of grassroots initiatives by NGOs in tackling endemic poverty, you have to analyse the attitudes to poverty itself by the elites. There is little in the way of intropection by the upper classes in their own attitudes towards the poor which is why this research by Naomi Hossain is so interesting, perhaps even groundbreaking.

  3. sid Says:

    Although I must ask, Tahir, what kind of music do Bangladeshi elites listen to that makes them more conservative than European or American elites?

  4. Tahir Says:

    Yes, in agreement with you. My feeling is that the elites have got the wrong attitudes - it’s all about them and their egos first. They just don’t realise it. The sooner they focus on the poor as you say we might get more responsive interventions that support the poor on their own terms. It’s nice to see research to that effect.

    Music? Will miss this one in case i end up sounding like a music fascist.

  5. bjoernlasse Says:

    How do you think could this “problem” be changed sid?

    I am working on a research project about Bangladesh and will go there for one month in August to find some insights. As the project is quite spontanic I am still looking for feedback and advice how to improve the aim of our research paper.

    Here a link to a general information brochure:

    http://tansparency-for-development.googlegroups.com/web/transparency%20for%20development%20-%20information%20brochure%202.pdf?gda=4tnvBWoAAABjJu5Rw2zrFJMZkxcUC_ytjwMcW0DoH5xmqJgx6ozS62G1qiJ7UbTIup-M2XPURDTJDoNtmxaTrujR_2GWkqhshZjblybCw4JM_Sy8Rq0cEwa7lPburt5OnLVBKH-gDaXFZQ0sfKxfkr7wJUWCfwp1&hl=en

  6. Sid H Arthur Says:

    The attitudes are changing bjoernlasse, but how its a slow generational change. I don’t expect to see the situation corrected overnight.

    A number of factors were touched upon by Naomi, in her article. The proliferation of NGOs have had a monumental impact on women’s rights. One would like to think that there has been a parallel increase in the rights of the poor as well. There is a growing sense of rights that the rural poor have picked up on and this can be seen in the recent Kansat riots which showed the disparity in energy distribution across urbam/rural and class divides. It was an eye-opening event and one of the factors that brought down the BNP government.

    Elites are elites and any rights that are going to be granted will not be forthcoming from the top. As Chomsky said, “Rights are not granted from above. They are won from below”. In the case of Bangladesh, this will come from the burgeoning urban lower class rather than from the majority rural-based poor.

  7. bjoernlasse Says:

    thank you Sid!

    I am curious - what do you think is the next step? There is a slow generational change: but where to? Every society is going through this type of change slower or quicker depending on the pressure from inside and outside and the speed of communication. This however is very abstract.

    It is typical, that in regions with a higher pressure and a higher density of people and therefore more communication -> urban areas -> change is initiated much quicker.

    I am wondering which variables of change are present right now in Bangladesh and how a concrete increase of communication can be achieved in your opinion.

  8. Diganta Says:

    You can get my two cents on the topic in my blog :
    http://horizonspeaks.wordpress.com/2006/11/06/an-indians-view-of-bangladesh-part-1/

    I wrote :
    The difference between Dhaka and Chittagong is really pathetic, and asked me a question - if such is the difference between the country’s first and second major cities - what can be the differences between the rich and the poor and also the urban and the rural people? Isn’t a decentralized mechanism should be in place for a country that’s trying to eradicate the poverty? Six different divisions with six assemblies and autonomies to the divisions to some extent might have produced less number of skyscrapers in Dhaka, but a few more in other cities. Developing a few more cities parallel to Dhaka should be critical to Bangladesh’s people.

    The influx of villagers towards Dhaka is also something similar in India, although there has been a improved situation in South India. I remember both Nehru and Gandhi were very eager for rural development since it would allow cities to develop and stop villagers to take shelter in cities for every second reason. It seems, Bangladesh, along with India, failed to achieve it miserably. In my view, rural development is the need of an hour for Bangladesh because of the high percentage of village or semi-urban people in the country.

  9. KGazi Says:

    bjoernlasse - effective form of communication in BD has been the media - the urban elite are influenced by TV drama (soap opera) and newspapers - and so the media is a powerful form of communication among elite.

    Poverty, class and the ancient leftovers of hindu CASTE system may be dispalyed in the media to highlight negative lasting effect on society. Awareness of how the fabric of society needs to be MODERNIZED so that people dont remain any longer in the ancient class barriers, but open up say, like the west, to “love thy neighbor”, create foundations, do concerts, to help eradicate poverty.

    Per Diganta #8, On the issue of decentralization - government (govt, GOB) has started some incentives, eg require future garment factories to build outside the main city.

    On general note - the main culprit has been corruption. All govt plans, projects, incentives, communication, you name it, has been eaten up totally by CORRUPTION.

    Until corruption is cut down drastically - (good wishes to current interim govt) - no reearch, no plan or dream will work.

    Hope bjoernlasse research project goes well - let us know your conclusions, and see the finished paper.

  10. bjoernlasse Says:

    I thank you for your great replys. I am digging into the topic “Bangladesh” in all my free time to improve my understanding of the circumstances…

    I am creating playlists on youtube right now with videos I found which might be interessting.

    if you are interessted:

    http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=23BA956FF3899FB0

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