Private Religion and Public Ideology

There is an important distinction to be made between Islam as religion and Islam as ideology.

The statement “Religion is a private matter” is only applicable in liberal, secular societies in some parts of the west. In muslim societies, religion is almost always made to be a public matter. Islamic religious authority is reasserting itself as a totalising vision across the world, thanks to the deep-pocket funding of Saudi Arabian Wahhabism. This affects even the occassionally observant and ‘nominal’ muslims found in western societies who hold the notions of rigorous Salafism or Wahhabism lightly.

Sami Zubaida recasts some received ideas on private religion and public ideology in an insightful article on openDemocracy. He views Islamic religiosity, under current conditions, almost invariably entails an ideological vision in the form of an “umma nationalism”.

Do these observations of diversity, then, reinforce the distinction between religion (private) and ideology (public)? I would argue not, because Muslim identification since 9/11, irrespective of degree or type of religiosity, has become ideologised in the increasingly dominant discourse of umma nationalism.

Umma nationalism seems to be, currently, a dominant mode of thought for many Muslims, in the west as well as the Muslim world. It conceives the political world as one of confrontation between Muslims on the one side and hostile Christians, Jews and Hindus on the other. It is a variant of the “clash of civilizations”. It is a totalising vision which eliminates actual politics. The complexities of Iraq or Afghanistan or Palestine/Israel, of the ethnic politics of Europe, of the struggles of Chechnya, all these are collapsed to a single dimension of religious/communal confrontation.

It faces the equally total and simplistic notion of the “war on terror”. This discourse of umma nationalism seems to be widely held, not only by committed ideological or religious Muslims, but also casually by many nominal Muslims.

The great majority of Muslims probably holds these notions lightly and certainly doesn’t act upon them, socially or politically. Would this, then, confirm the distinction between religion and ideology? It would in that many of those who partake of this ideology, whether casually or earnestly, may not be religiously observant. But few who are observant would eschew it.

125 Responses to “Private Religion and Public Ideology”

  1. thabet Says:

    Sami Zubaida is a he not a she, mate.
    http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/princeton/images/zubaida.jpg

    “Religion as a private matter” is also coming under strain in secular Europe. Read about Rocco Buttiglione:
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3718210.stm

    This is largely because the boundaries of “public” and “private” can shift.

    I am sure in an American setting, religion is more than just “private” (especially outside of the north-east coast), considering how many public services are provided by religious organisations.

  2. Sid H Arthur Says:

    Mr Zubaida’s ‘gender correction’ duly applied; thanks thabet.

    I’m not saying for even a minute that public/private boundaries are divided along Oriental/Occidental lines exclusively. One of the greatest wonders of the spiritual life in India is the “porous boundary” between religious divides of ordinary people. Hence, you can find Muslims at the sites of Hindu saints and vice versa.

    As for Buttiglione, forgive me, but he sounds like a slimey prat.

  3. sonia Says:

    very interesting sid - thanks for the pointer. will be looking up what sami’s been saying - it sounds like this ‘ummah nationalism’ is what ive been sensing from a lot of people increasingly.

  4. thabet Says:

    Just to be clear, I am not defending Buttiglione, merely pointing out how his own defence of having “public” and “private” views was unacceptable to many (and so got him the sack).

  5. El Cid Says:

    Religion is a private matter — thing is, can uber-liberals live with that or do they see it as a cop-out for the agnostic? Remember Paxman?
    As for ummah nationalism — it’s something I have alluded to before. But — being devil’s advocate in a conversation with myself — is it something just to bash muslims with?
    Asking questions is easy

  6. Sid H Arthur Says:

    Something to bash Muslims with? No but I know why you ask the question El-C.

    On popular neo-liberal sites (you know the ones), posts and comments boxes crawl with laptop-bombardiers who have picked up on some cod muslim anthroplogy or some repurposed meme from JihadWatch. In spite of which these sites cover some rather important and thought-provoking issues. Nevertheless, terms like “umma nationlism” get bandied around and in no time at all, will descend into stupid and vulgar Muslim-bashing.

    I’ve found openDemocracy to be thankfully free from wankers/trolls from that end of the blogosphere, and it is chock-full of great articles.

    Muslims living in the west know exactly what umma nationalism is:

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/4171328.stm

    Its not an evil empire concept for most muslims. In the private, personal or banal sense, its a soulful ‘One Nation Under a Groove’, to a global ideology at its most public.

    Muslims owe it to themselves to discuss, in their own terms, and give them a good airing as part of their discourse. Otherwise it provides more fodder for neo-liberals, who are only to willing to use any old guff to justify everything from the Iraq war to bombing Iran to torture and so on.

  7. slave_of_Allah Says:

    let me add this comment to all fellow muslim brothers and sisters and those who claim to be a good and moderate AND bad and extremist muslim while not practicing it sincerely and acting hypocriticaly…Allah says in Holy Quraan:

    “O you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islam with complete submission to Allah. And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah (i.e. Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah’s favors on you; for you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace you became brothers; and you were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah make His signs clear to you that you may be guided.” [Surah Al’Imran (3); ayah 102-103]

    So be you Sunnis or Shias, Sufis or Wahabbis, Kurds or Turks, Tableegis or Jamaates…whatever it be…just HOLD FAST, ALL OF YOU TOGETHER, TO THE ROPE OF ALLAH, AND BE NOT DIVIDED…if we read Quran and act according to Allah’s Commands..fine, no probz…BUT if you follow system OTHER than Quran, conflict begins, and you begin to lose your identity…and thus go astray…

    In this modern civilisation, we see muslims attacking muslims, and this is bound to happen when third party interferes and creates mischief in the name of ‘peace-making dudes.’

    Today we see Iraq is attacked under the crime of ‘war on terror’ (not to mention Islam), and no muslims coming forward to defend our fellow brothers and sisters, and this is becoz we are obsessed with awe and/or greed and thus becoming more ’sensible’ materialistic. Tomorrow, Iran and Pakistan will be gone. Equally when you try to defend your sisters from getting raped, your wealth from getting stolen, your mom and dad, your neighbors, your fellow muslims living in your society, you will be regarded as a ‘JIHADIST’ by western government. I would like to see how you bangalees defend our fellow muslim brothers and sisters in bangaladesh when US soilders from Iraq and Afganisthan are coming to your country in the name of helping Sidr Victims. No one knows how many soilders are coming in that warship…

    you see bros and sis…this UMMAH is getting weak due to invansion of these US, and our self following them implementing their life-styles…some will follow their tareqa for some dollars and honor, and others will oppose for various reasons like culture and heritage, and some for religious reasons…

    during Iran-Iraq war, these US ppl built a base in my country in the name of fighting war against Iran..later, they fought against Iraq in Gulf war…and never left…so their ocuupation has turned into invansion, or say colonizing it using british policy ‘divide and rule’…thus infiltrating UMMAH with their stupid policies…

    You see we had our glory for 1300 years, and since we have been nationalised which is alien to Islam, we feel patriotic to our nation only and not our fellow brothers and sisters of different nationality, culture etc..

    So does it mean i will never feel sorry for you ppl in bangladesh who will soon be AMERICANISED in
    the name of helping Sidr Victims….

    Go and observe what these US ppl do, and how they will search their jihadist and destroy Islam in the name of helping Sidr victims….

    weak and oppressed this Ummah is, nothing can this Amnesty international or United Nations do to rescue bangladesh…

    you will definetely see 2 groups…one opposing to American lifestyle and their strategy of implementing their stupid ideology (thus legalising rape) and other who invites them to feel the taste of being like an american, not to mention the slaves of Americas

    Allah be with u all!

  8. Sid Says:


    So does it mean i will never feel sorry for you ppl in bangladesh who will soon be AMERICANISED in
    the name of helping Sidr Victims….

    Go and observe what these US ppl do, and how they will search their jihadist and destroy Islam in the name of helping Sidr victims….

    So you’re suggesting that humaitarian aid relief for stricken survivors of Sidr will result in the “Americanisation” of Bangladesh. Have you got any references/reports to back up these claims?
    Are you suggesting that Sidr victims should not be given humanitarian relief if it involves your alleged “attack of jihadists” (even if that were the case)?

    Are you suggesting that relief efforts are a foil for attacking jihadists?

    And finally, are you saying that jihadists are representative of Muslims in Bangladesh?

  9. slave_of_Allah Says:

    the reference is in many parts in Africa…where in the name of humanitarian relief or aid, these soilders are corrupting many brothers and sisters…they bring their propoganda saying some jihadists are hiding here such as al-Qaeda and all those bullshit stuff…come and visit in Somalia, Darfur, etc…they attack our brothers even if they say their prayers thinking that these are future jihadists, and lash them for no legitimate reasons…check out what happens in ur country…..they convince our poor and helpless sisters to join brothels to earn for family…don’t u know that 50,000 iraqi sisters are send to brothels after the bloody invasion of Iraq? why? dun they have money to help our sisters, and provide them some food, clothing etc..? why exploit them? May Allah forbid the same fate is awaiting for poor sisters in Sidr and some parts of ur village…and the brothers, you will see that they will not be allowed to practice Islam sincerely..coz interference will always be there….thus AMERICANIZATION is confirmed…i have an experience which is why I am saying all these, not just I heard from media I am telling u all these…media never provides true information….i u dun hear what media says, u r unheared, if u hear what media says, u r mis-heard…come to middle-east and africa and see what these idiots are doing in the name of peace-keeping in africas and re-building or re-construting in Iraq…

    Your secular govt. i am sorry to say is the corrupt govt…and they eat all monies and never provide stuff for ur own ppl, let alone do so…
    Germany, India, some other countries…gave millions and billions of dollars YET i see in BBC and CNN that the relief hasn’t reached there…where are all those monies? I see few clothes and JUST 1 kg of rice, is this enough for the starving ppl there? Shame on these corrupt rulers who eat all the monies…you should know better since u live there…remember, media doesnt provide all necessary info…just go there and see…i myself have donated for the sake of Allah…i doubt it hasn’t reached there…

    remember one thing, Americans CREATES Jihadists…Jihad is not necessarily struggling against our corrupt nafs but it also specifies to defend ur family, wealth, property, land from the hands of oppressors….

    many oppressing americans who are leaving from my country and some parts of middle-east to bangladesh are those who killed our brothers and also those who raped our sisters…so u r expecting help from someone who hates islam and its rights, and who will never let ur practice ur religion sincerely i bet you…another muslim country in crisis…

  10. Sid Says:

    You haven’t answered any of the questions I asked you in #8, but instead went on another long, boring lecture on USA, the perennial mother of all enemies.

    Money donated to the Bangladeshi government is being used to help the victims over a period of time. I should think it will take at least 2 years to rehabilitate these people again. Victims of the Indonesian tsunami are still recovering their lives 3 years after the event, so to suggest as you have done:
    “I see few clothes and JUST 1 kg of rice, is this enough for the starving ppl there? Shame on these corrupt rulers who eat all the monies”
    2 weeks after Sidr is both gratuitously inaccurate and irresponsible.

    Rather than worry about the real humanitarian efforts of USA and Western aid agencies that is helping real people affected on the ground, I think you should consider another evil. And this is how little help has been offered by rich Arab oil states like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, your Wahhabi brethren, the custodians of the Holy Ka’aba and numero uno Muslimeen! I think Kuwait donated a measely 200,000 USD to Bangladesh for the 15,000 deaths and the millions affected by Sidr! And they are our “muslim brothers”!
    Why don’t you complain about how little Arab countries do for stricken Muslim states like Bangladesh, Palestine, Somalia, Sudan etc? How many times do you get to see Arab states helping “another muslim country in crisis” with unconditional aid money, food supplies, medicine etc?

    The “Muslim/Arab ummah” bullshit is a romantic idea which is probably the source of many a wet dream for you Islamists but it hasn’t really helped/fed/saved any lives of Muslims when they really needed it, has it?

  11. slave_of_Allah Says:

    Unfortunately, you are brainshed completely. Your mocking is not what I expected. You just sit here, argue and don’t even try to resolve. Rather, you must educate yourself before you intend to help others and solve all conflicts. Who the hell do you think you are? A Democratic demon perhaps. What makes you call me Islamist? Stupid people like you represents Islam in bad shape and image. That’s why we hear Islamic Fundamentalist, Islamic Militant, Islamic blah blah and now we hear Islamist…why do you keep judging others? Did I ever call them Wahhabi brethren? Stupid people like you have also exploited this name and calling all Arabs Wahhabis regardless of their religion. Look!!! You must know one thing about Muslim Ummah….many TRUE MUSLIMS (dun say Islamist or other idiot names)in middle-east disapproves of such leaders like Hosni Mubarak, King Abdullah,
    etc…these demons are the puppet of west and hence they know nothing but going to brothels…and idiots like u can’t do anything but annoy all ppl with ur stupid questions….what is ur profession anyways? why dunt u vist places and see the reality with ur own blurred eyes that we can’t do anything to get rid of this monarchy system…make some survey…take opinions of all Muslims of Arabia, and see what answers u come up with! Very few lawerences u will come up to, and many want shariah system and rebuilding of Islamic State stretching from Europe to far east…And what will these pathetic democracy system do when it hasn’t done anything for 88 years since the collapse of Ottoman Caliphate? Bullshit democracy!

    And those who come and help the religion of Allaah, stupid ppl like u name them as Tableegess, sufis, islamist, al-qaeda etc and mock at them…to hell with ur democratic speech….learn to resolve rather creating conflicting ideas…learn to unite all muslims and work righteously instead of showing sheer hypocricy..

    Shortly maybe before the next and final Religious battle between United sects of Muslims or Muslim Ummah and the Roman idiots striving with their democratic ideology with ppl like u associated, Imam Mehdi (as) will appear and unite all Muslims and settle the differences in ONE NIGHT!!! The state of europe is pregnant of Islamic State which will be built under the banner of 1 flag which is Soverignity belongs to Allah alone ….and if u regard this as bullshit, i recommend u to flash ur face in the commet…since u have no idea of signs of Judgement Day

  12. slave_of_Allah Says:

    and no matter how much u try to create justice, you will never be able to do so…u will either be killed or imprisoned whenever u speak infront of tyranical rules which includes ur stupid prime ministers and presidents…

    funny how i feel when western govt. told their agents or puppets to extend little hand to poor countries like urs…where as they will prove to be worthy of all such aid, and hence invade ur land for gas and other resources…bad news for china as well since the presence of US dogs gives them some uncomfortable sense of feeling….on other extreme, we see the same dogs are appearing in pakistan…what a polity of colonolizing muslim countries…iran is left out, and thus all brainwashing puppets will favor US and help them to choke iran…and stupid ppl like u will blame all so-called Islamist…a pure propoganda!

  13. Sid Says:

    But still no criticism of the lack of real aid from Saudi and Kuwait. But when the US and western donor orgs organise real initiatives to save lives, distribute food it is “colonising muslim countries”?

    Thanks for your valued analysis, but the great victimised ummah story is the real reason why muslims brainwash themselves into a set of woefully sad and silly reflexes that you have most clearly shown us here.

  14. slave_of_Allah Says:

    What else should I say about Middle-east other then proving them as puppets or agents of US? The dogs will obey their masters, dunt u see? And it’s the masters that is dominating the entire sphere of our lives, dun’t u hear? Is a blind man and one who can see the same? Is a deaf and one who hears the same? Woe to u!

    I ain’t representative or khalif of Islamic State that u will start judging me on behalf of whole Muslim Ummah…secularist like you will always find an excuse and idiosyncratic ways of proving that he or she is brainwashed…r u a muslim or a kafir?

    what do u know about US foreign policy and their politics?

    go read Quran, a book full of wisdom rather showing ur peculiar speech of disapproving Muslims and their global shortcomings due to colonization of west and interference in adapting Sharia Laws…
    read the following article and be convinced of urself what western gov. does to ur so-called islamist or brainwashing muslims…

  15. slave_of_Allah Says:

    06th September 2007 New Civilisatio Magazine

    A number of striking findings came in an underreported poll published in April 2007. The poll, commissioned by the University of Maryland confirms previous research on the subject http://www.css-jordan.org . The poll conducted across four majority Muslim countries (Egypt, Pakistan, Morocco, and Indonesia) showed overwhelming support for the following:

    • Application of Shariah law in Muslim countries
    • Unification with other countries in a Pan Islamic state ie. Caliphate
    • Opposition to occupation and western foreign policy
    • Opposition to the imposition of western values in Muslim lands
    • Opposition to the use of violence against civilians

    For some of these issues, the level of consensus is in excess of 75%.

    WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM SUCH POLLS?

    1. It indicates the real views on the Muslim street

    2. It blows the false myths about the political ideas of Islam and violence

    3. It shows that the ideas underpinning the global war on terror are dangerous for the whole world and are deceptive to Western audiences

    4. It proves the need for a change in western foreign policy towards the Muslim world

    5. It proves that the Caliphate resonates in the Muslim world and that there is a need for all to understand these ideas from their advocates

    1. It indicates the real views on the Muslim street

    Tony Blair stated in many speeches that the Muslim world does not have to choose between dictatorship and a ‘Taleban style theocracy’. Rather, he argued, that the shared universal values of western democracy and liberty should be the future for Muslims.

    It is true people hate dictatorship, occupation and corruption. However, it is false to think that the Muslim world feels the only way this can end is to choose a system like the one Blair, Bush and others advocate.

    Muslims see the Shariah in governance as a means of guaranteeing their authority in appointing the ruler, and giving the checks and balances of accountability. Islam, Shariah and the Caliphate are what Muslims see as their liberation from dictatorship, occupation and corruption. It is a system that comes from their beliefs and values and is in accordance with their history.

    2. It blows the false myths about the political ideas of Islam and violence

    Right wing and hawkish commentators in the west argue that there is an inherent link between the political ideas of Islam and violence as a means to see Islam established. This survey has proved this is a lie and is false. People in the Muslim world want Islam but do not see political violence as a means to achieve it. In reality the overwhelming activism for the return of Islam and the Caliphate in the Muslim world has been through a political method.

    3. It shows that the ideas underpinning the War on Terror are dangerous and are deceive the people in the west.

    Political leaders, such as Bush, Blair, Cheney, John Reid and others have all attacked the principle of anyone working for a Caliphate and Shariah in the Muslim world.

    President Bush stated, when referring to people that share the ideology of Al Qaeda “They hope to establish a violent political utopia across the Middle East, which they call caliphate, where all would be ruled according to their hateful ideology.”

    Tony Blair also weighed in, when after the 7/7 attacks on London he stated that Britain must confront - “an evil ideology”, defining this as “their barbaric ideas.” These included: “the establishment of effectively Taliban States and Shari’ah law in the Arab world en route to one Caliphate of all Muslim nations.”

    Charles Clarke when Home Secretary in 2005 made a speech to the right wing neo-conservative US think tank the Heritage Foundation stating in regards to the Muslim world: “What drives these people on is ideas. And, unlike the liberation movements of the post-World War II era, these are not political ideas like national independence from colonial rule, or equality for all citizens without regard for race or creed, or freedom of expression without totalitarian repression. Such ambitions are, at least in principle, negotiable and in many cases have actually been negotiated. However, there can be no negotiation about the re-creation of the Caliphate; there can be no negotiation about the imposition of Sharia law”.

    They have led people in their own population to believe these are ideas of a fringe group of Muslims and most Muslims disagree with the idea of Shariah, Caliphate and any political manifestation of Islam. It is this thinking that deludes people into believing that they can ‘solve’ the problems of the Muslim world by bombing some groups, banning others and changing a couple of regimes.

    The reality is that Islam, Shariah and Caliphate are the political ideas of the majority. Therefore, the war that these politicians launched is one that is against the ideas that are the majority mainstream ideas of the Muslim world – the ideas that people see as their liberation from tyrannical oppression, economic dependency and political slavery. They are fooling their own population into a false idea that is a war that can be won. They say it is to be a ‘long’ war. If they are trying to fight the ideas of approximately 1 billion people this is to be a never ending war.

    4. It proves the need for a change in western foreign policy towards the Muslim world

    The late Robin Cook said, after the Iraq war was over, that the challenge for the west is to reform its foreign policy with the Muslim world – meaning that he recognised that a colonial relationship was no longer tenable. The sad reality is that Bush and Blair interpreted the alternative to ruling through proxy dictators as direct rule via occupation. The unfortunate reality is that the likes of David Cameron and his small circle of neocon advisors agree with this analysis. The Gordon Brown analysis is like that of the Iraq Study group in the USA – that is that the policy of intervention to suppress the expression of these political ideas of Islam is essential, but that the military option is a last resort.

    The hopeful sign is that the mainstream populations in Britain, Europe and America were against the Iraq war, and do not support these politicians in their desire to intervene, interfere and invade. They are sceptical about the arguments about liberal interventionism – seeing it as a hypocritical excuse to intervene for material gain. They are sceptical about the scare mongering about terrorist threats. Even where they see the need to take security measures at home they see this foreign policy as worsening the problem. They recognise that heightening anger in the Muslim world and destroying civil society does not make the world a safer place.

    5. It proves that the Caliphate today resonates in the Muslim world and that there is a need for all to understand these ideas from their advocates

    Above all this survey reflects the emergence of the return of the Caliphate as a majority desire. It proves that the Muslim masses want to live by the Shari’ah. It proves that the west has lost the battle of ideas. And it proves that Islam has won the battle for hearts and minds.

    Given that this is the case, this shows that there is an urgent need for people to understand these ideas from those who carry them and believe in them. Many ordinary people in western countries see past the lies and spin of politicians. There is currently no effective voice that is countering these government inspired lies with the real facts about what Muslims the world over want. There is a huge burden on the Muslim community to advocate Islam as an alternative for the Muslim world.

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