Buddhism USA’s 4th largest religion


by Al-Hack
21st September, 2006 at 12:05 pm    

Buddhism is growing apace in the United States, and an identifiably American Buddhism is emerging. Teaching centers and sanghas (communities of people who practice together) are spreading here as American-born leaders reframe ancient principles in contemporary Western terms.

Though the religion born in India has been in the US since the 19th century, the number of adherents rose by 170 percent between 1990 and 2000, according to the American Religious Identity Survey. An ARIS estimate puts the total in 2004 at 1.5 million, while others have estimated twice that. “The 1.5 million is a low reasonable number,” says Richard Seager, author of “Buddhism in America.”

“People feel that Buddhist figures like the Dalai Lama and Thich Nhat Hanh of Vietnam are contributing something, not trying to convert people,” says Lama Surya Das, a highly trained American lama in the Tibetan tradition. “They are not building big temples, but offering wisdom and ways of reconciliation and peacemaking, which are so much needed.” [CS Monitor]


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  1. The Past; Present; and Future

    Purpose of Life?…

    I should becomea full-time blogger methinks – so much to write!I have this list of things I want to write that keeps getting pushed to the next day and on and on..I am a procrastinator after all..
    Anyways:
    There’s a Pickled Politics thread today…




  1. Leon — on 21st September, 2006 at 12:17 pm  

    So it’s not just Holywood then?

  2. Jai — on 21st September, 2006 at 12:23 pm  

    “It’s Richard Gere, the world’s most famous Buddhist !!!”

    “What about the Dalai Lama ?!”

    -The Simpsons.

    (I cant remember if it was Homer or Lisa who said the first sentence, but it’s still funny).

  3. Kesara / StrangelyPsychedelic — on 21st September, 2006 at 12:24 pm  

    Hollywood prefers Kaballa (or however it is spelt)…

    until the great scientology masses rise up and overthrow them.

    Scientology > Kaballah.

  4. Leon — on 21st September, 2006 at 12:25 pm  

    @ Jai, LOL! Excellent quote.:)

  5. Chairwoman — on 21st September, 2006 at 1:20 pm  

    I practised Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism for 7 years. Although I like the philosophy, I found the actual practice time consuming and eventually unsatisfying. Also, it’s not who I am.

  6. Jagdeep — on 21st September, 2006 at 1:38 pm  

    I do snake-style tiger-fist drunken-master Buddhism.

    Dont mess with me.

  7. sonia — on 21st September, 2006 at 1:47 pm  

    a focus on personal philosophy than ‘group religion’ makes great sense to me.

  8. Sunny — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:01 pm  

    I hate it when Buddhism is defined as a religion. It is so much more than that in my view. Of course I’m not a specialist on the subject but I see it as more of a psychological and spiritual aid than being categorised into a western notion of “religion”.

  9. Chairwoman — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:09 pm  

    Sunny – When I practised Buddhism, we referred to the Dai Gohonzon (actually a piece of wood carved in 12th century by Nichiren Daishonin, the Buddha for this age) as ‘the supreme object of worship’. Also there is an heirarchal priesthood. That makes it a religion.

    Since the great schism between Daisaku Ikeda and the High Priest, that phrase has been removed from the prayers. Now it’s a lay organisation, it has become a philosohpy.

  10. Neil — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:09 pm  

    Its very similar to the Vedanta Philosophy in Hinduism.

  11. Robert — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:11 pm  

    And His Holiness agrees with you. When he came to Edinburgh, I was invited to the press event where we had to opportunity to ask him questions. When asked whether more westerners should convert to Buddhism, he said: “No, not really”. I’m reminded of Chairwoman’s comments a couple of days ago, about how other religions set out their stall for converts. Buddhism doesn’t seem to do that in the same way (nor, for that matter, Judaism).

    Here are a fantastic set of maps giving county-by-county (not just State level) data for religious adherance in the USA. It is mainly Christian sects. I imagine the 1.5 million Buddhists would be spread out over the entire continent.

  12. Sid — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:20 pm  

    What Sunny is suggesting, if I understand him correctly, is that all religious doctrine contains within them an essence that is both unique to it but Universal at the same time. In terms of praxis or dharma the religion will contain formal processes and laws which are necessary for the laiety to get a handle of the spitiritual truth found within the faith. In that respect, Mahayana Buddhism and Nichiren Daishonin are astonishingly different and are religions in their own right but both possess the link to the Buddhas’s spiritual blessing or “barakah”, to use an Arabic word. At least thats my understanding of D T Suzuki on Zen Buddhism.

  13. Sunny — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:23 pm  

    Also there is an heirarchal priesthood. That makes it a religion.

    Chairwoman – To use an Islamic term, the priesthood is an ‘innovation’ in my opinion. In Buddhism anyone has the potential to become enlightened and be the same as others.

    The other thing is not all Buddhist sects are the same. Some have priesthoods, some don’t. Unfortunately as Buddhism has been absorbed into local cultures (I blame Indians since they love rituals), these hierarchical structures have evolved.

  14. sonia — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:28 pm  

    Very interesting. good points sid and sunny

  15. sonia — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:28 pm  

    Are u back sunny?

  16. Robert — on 21st September, 2006 at 2:35 pm  

    Unfortunately as Buddhism has been absorbed into local cultures (I blame Indians since they love rituals), these hierarchical structures have evolved.

    Out in Sri Lanka, there seems to be a lot of idolatry within Buddhism. In Kandy, there is a shrine to the Buddha’s tooth, which is said to have levitated…

  17. Chairwoman — on 21st September, 2006 at 3:15 pm  

    Actually Sid, Nichiren’s Buddhism is considered to be Mahayan, or so I was led to believe.

    Kismet, at least he’s got paedophile right this time. Do you think we should ask him to type his corrections three times?

  18. Kesara / StrangelyPsychedelic — on 21st September, 2006 at 3:29 pm  

    Out in Sri Lanka, there seems to be a lot of idolatry within Buddhism. In Kandy, there is a shrine to the Buddha’s tooth, which is said to have levitated…

    When we worship the Buddha we dont worship him as a ‘God’ but give him a sense of respect for providing us with some kind of logical progression towards achieving Englightenment.
    The interesting thing about many Buddhist temples in SL is that they have shrine rooms dedicated to Hindu Deities – the reason being that Buddhism is a very difficult philosophy to undertake. In what used to be a primarily agrarian society what the heck do you do if the rains dont come? Tis nice to have a set of Gods to pray to once in a while as the Buddha aint gonna do squat for you – his method (and the method of previous Buddhas) is of little comfort when grounded in the material world.

    It can be interpreted as a philosophy, and a way of life/religion although my personal following is of the former.

    Monkhood/Priesthood whilst often misinterpreted is primarily the method through which one attains Englightenment – you renounce as many material possessions as possible and take to a life of meditation. Heirachies develop as this is human nature and in Sri Lanka ancient kings would often shelter in monasteries during times of conflict – thus giving some monks (and the ‘religion’ as a whole) considerable political leverage that is reflected in contemporary politics.

  19. Sid — on 21st September, 2006 at 3:48 pm  

    Chairwoman, right you are. I always thought the Mahayana tradition contained Nichiren Shoshu.

  20. Sunny — on 21st September, 2006 at 3:48 pm  

    Tis nice to have a set of Gods to pray to once in a while as the Buddha aint gonna do squat for you

    True, but the Buddha did not claim to do squat for people (quite rightly). And praying to God for gifts is also a silly line of thinking IMO. I would say most Hindu philosophy doesn’t work along that line either.

  21. Anas — on 21st September, 2006 at 3:55 pm  

    It’s reassuring to read that Buddhists can be as violent, lecherous, hypocritical as the adherents of any other religion ;)

    http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/trungpa.asp
    http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/dalai.asp
    http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/zen.asp

  22. Sunny — on 21st September, 2006 at 4:05 pm  

    Anas – I get a bit defensive when people make such gross generalisations. Thankfully the Tibetans are not blowing themselves up in retaliation to Chinese occupation of their lands, and neither are they trying to use religious texts to do so.

    Catholic – yeah shurrup now and bugger off.

  23. Anas — on 21st September, 2006 at 4:25 pm  

    get a bit defensive when people make such gross generalisations

    Huh? I’m not sure I made any?

  24. Anas — on 21st September, 2006 at 4:31 pm  

    Thankfully the Tibetans are not blowing themselves up in retaliation to Chinese occupation of their lands, and neither are they trying to use religious texts to do so.

    Your point being that I was implicitly defending Islamic terrorists or something?

  25. Sunny — on 21st September, 2006 at 4:32 pm  

    Just saying there is very little comparison to Islamic extremists in our current state of affairs. That Buddhists can also get violent etc is obvious – they are humans after all and everyone behaves pretty much the same.

  26. sonia — on 21st September, 2006 at 5:30 pm  

    :-)

  27. Leon — on 21st September, 2006 at 5:37 pm  

    Weren’t some of the Japanese kamakasi pilots Buddhist? Or am I’m misunder-remembering?

  28. Chairwoman — on 21st September, 2006 at 5:45 pm  

    I think you’re right Leon, but they’re also Japanese. I’m not very good on this subject but I think that whatever you are, you also Japanese in a quasi-religious way, and also Shinto. There are a lot of public holidays in Japan.

  29. Kesara / StrangelyPsychedelic — on 21st September, 2006 at 6:17 pm  

    True, but the Buddha did not claim to do squat for people (quite rightly). And praying to God for gifts is also a silly line of thinking IMO. I would say most Hindu philosophy doesn’t work along that line either.

    Yup – all the wrong reasons and whatnot but my person opinion of ‘why folks follow/turn to religion’ is that it gives them strength/support when times are hard. It is also easy to attribute things to “God’s Will”.
    With Buddhism once has to accept certain ‘bitter pills’ like karma…I believe the essence and onus of Buddhism is on the Individual rather than the Individual + God (or the Individual + Satan to be PC).

    There are a lot of public holidays in Japan.

    Buddhism is ‘responsible’ for Sri Lanka having the highest number of public holidays in the world (theres at least one every month with the full moon…)

    Weren’t some of the Japanese kamakasi pilots Buddhist? Or am I’m misunder-remembering?

    Im sure they were – finding examples where folks committed violent acts in the name of Buddhism or using it as justification is quite a different matter altogether. As Sunny said of course Buddhists can be violent but I dont know of an example where it has been used as the prime vehicle for violent acts/thought.

    In recent times Buddhist shrines have been demolished and attacked (the Temple of the Tooth bearing the brunt of a suicide truck bombing – the equivalent of St Pauls being hit in London) and yet there was never a backlash against the religion or race of the perpetrators…it just didnt happen.
    In short: taking over a country of pious Buddhists is gonna be far easier than that of a nation of any other major religion imo.

  30. Bert Preast — on 22nd September, 2006 at 12:49 am  

    Buddhists knocked this up in my town a couple of years back:

    http://www.stupabenalmadena.org/images/stupa_night.jpg

    I have to admit, I quite like it.

  31. Chris Stiles — on 22nd September, 2006 at 10:16 am  

    Well, some religion *has* to be the 4th biggest – and once you factor in Christianity, Islam and Hinduism, you are probably left with more people of Buddhist origin than Jews/Parsees etc.

  32. Leon — on 22nd September, 2006 at 10:19 am  

    I think you’re right Leon, but they’re also Japanese. I’m not very good on this subject but I think that whatever you are, you also Japanese in a quasi-religious way, and also Shinto. There are a lot of public holidays in Japan.

    Very true but I guess the point I’m making is no religion has been able to stop human violence, in most cases it increases within certain quarters, despite their peaceful/godly claims/moral frameworks etc…

  33. Chairwoman — on 22nd September, 2006 at 10:40 am  

    I think people get a bit confused about Buddhism, although the ultimate aim is Kosen Rufu (world peace), it doesn’t necessarily mean that road is always going to be peaceful. Nichiren was a feisty little Buddha, and was always up for a ruck if the cause was good. Hence his exiles. Also if someone takes a warlike action that is ultimately a good thing, it could be good Karma.

    OK my head is now spinning. This is one of those subjects that needs conversation with interruptions and people jumping up and down and getting animated. It doesn’t work for me in print.

  34. Jai — on 22nd September, 2006 at 10:54 am  

    Re: The Japanese history of warfare in relation to Buddhism.

    This subject was heavily discussed in James Clavell’s famous novels “Shogun” and (to a lesser extent) “Gai-Jin”. From what I understand — assuming the writer’s descriptions were accurate — although Japanese warriors were indeed technically Buddhist, they regarded being born Samurai as a curse, as they believed themselves to be trapped in the whole “Bushido” Samurai ethos which obviously contradicted the more pacifist teachings of traditional Buddhism. Shintoism also had an influence on them, obviously.

    I don’t know if this mindset still existed during the time of the Kamikazis — who were also influenced by Samurai culture — but I thought it was an interesting point anyway.

  35. Jagdeep — on 22nd September, 2006 at 11:28 am  

    Wow Bert Preast that looks wonderful. Must be cool to visit and just chill out at.

  36. Scroll_lock — on 22nd September, 2006 at 11:36 am  

    Arent’ Aum Shinrikyo, the cult behind the Sarin attacks on the Tokyo subway system, based on Hinduism and Buddhism?

  37. Chairwoman — on 22nd September, 2006 at 11:36 am  

    Shogun was also full of lots of blokes shouting ‘Your mother!’ at each other. And had Richard Chamberlain playing the hero in the mini series for goodness sake.

  38. Anas — on 22nd September, 2006 at 4:10 pm  

    Im sure they were – finding examples where folks committed violent acts in the name of Buddhism or using it as justification is quite a different matter altogether.

    Didn’t you look at the links I posted?

    With his oft-pictured gentle and sagacious appearance of later years, Suzuki is revered among many in the West as a true man of Zen. Yet he wrote that “religion should, first of all, seek to preserve the existence of the state,” followed by the assertion that the Chinese were “unruly heathens” whom Japan should punish “in the name of the religion.” Zen master Harada Sogaku, highly praised in the English writings of Philip Kapleau, Maezumi Taizan, and others, was also quoted by Hakugen [a Rinzai Zen priest and scholar teaching at Hanazono University in Kyoto]. In 1939 he wrote: “[If ordered to] march: tramp, tramp, or shoot: bang, bang. This is the manifestation of the highest Wisdom [of Enlightenment]. The unity of Zen and war of which I speak extends to the farthest reaches of the holy war [now under way]” (Victoria, 1997).

    Holy war? Now where have I heard that one before?

    [A]s a means of bringing into harmony those things which are incompatible, killing and war are necessary (in Victoria, 1997).

    That was from Suzuki’s Master.

    Another pertinent quote:

    Likewise for the sagely Omori Sogen, “lauded as the ‘greatest Zen master of modern times,’ whose very life is ‘worthy to be considered a masterpiece of Zen art’”:

    Instead of a master concerned with the “life-giving sword” … of Zen, we encounter someone who from the 1920s took an active part in the ultra-right’s agenda to eliminate parliamentary democracy through political assassination at home and promote Japan’s imperialist aims abroad. In short, a man willing to kill all who stood in the way of his political agenda, yet claiming the enlightenment of the Buddha as his own….
    Hosokawa Dogen writes: “The life of Omori Roshi is the manifestation of traditional and true Zen” (Victoria, 2003).

    and yet there was never a backlash against the religion or race of the perpetrators…it just didnt happen.

    From http://www.channel4.com/culture/microsites/C/can_you_believe_it/debates/fundamentalists.html:

    In Sri Lanka 70% of the people are Buddhists. It is 2,550 years since the death of Buddha, who taught his followers to seek enlightenment and spiritual development rather than material gain. Many young men take monastic vows and devote their lives to studying his teaching. But in Sri Lanka, some militant monks have a distinctly 21st century interpretation of Buddhism.

    Sri Lanka is in the throes of a recurring civil war being fought out between the secular Tamil Tigers and government military forces. Hardline nationalist monks who are allies of the country’s president, are violently opposed to demands for an independent homeland for the Tamils, some of whom are Hindu and some Christian. They believe that Buddha visited Sri Lanka and argue that the Tamil Tigers are a threat to the country’s Buddhist tradition. These radical monks argue that this justifies them fighting on the front lines along with the army.

    Though there are many Buddhists, including monks, who oppose the hardliners, the peace lobby in Sri Lanka is led by people with a secular mindset, who have not adequately addressed the concerns of believers. These concerns include the impact of globalisation on societies that have, until recently, been sheltered from outside influences. An anthropologist explains that many people feel that their cultural identity is under attack – that their sense of being Sinhalese or Tamil or Buddhist is being downgraded.

    The new breed of radical monks are so determined to protect Sinhalese culture that they are proposing an anti-conversion law, to counteract the appeal of new proselytising Christian groups that offer food, money and material possessions to people. There are also police reports of dozens of attacks on churches.

    It is hard to grasp the idea of Buddhists being fundamentalists but if fundamentalism is the intense politicisation of religion, then these extreme nationalist monks certainly come into that category.

  39. Anas — on 22nd September, 2006 at 4:12 pm  

    Oops. I should have differentiated the points I was responding to from the quotes I was pasting in that last post. But, you live and learn!

  40. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 5:13 pm  

    >>In short: taking over a country of pious Buddhists is gonna be far easier than that of a nation of any other major religion imo.

    Wonder why the Americans lost in Vietnam then! And the genocide in Cambodia was just an aberration? Nope, devoutly buddhist nations like the thais, khmers, burmese etc have as bloody a history as anyone else.

  41. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 5:23 pm  

    Aum shinrikyo is as buddhist/hindu as david koresh’s sect was “christian”.

    Anas, a note on the japanese examples you give above. Many of the east asian mahayana sects esp the Japanese ones have an eclectic mix of buddhist, taoist, confucianist and shinto beliefs, not to mention the founders’ personal fetishes. Suzuki may have yakked on all he liked about holy war, but there’s no mention of that in ANY mainstream buddhist texts or teachings. You betray your own ignorance of buddhism if you take suzuki as a reference for it.

  42. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 5:33 pm  

    Chairwoman,

    Buddhism 101:

    >>think people get a bit confused about Buddhism, although the ultimate aim is Kosen Rufu (world peace),

    Erm, this is not the ultimate aim of Buddhism, at least not as that bloke Gautama Sidddharta saw it. The aim of buddhism is to free oneself from the karmic cycle of successive lives – as all life is suffering, dukka.

    >>Also if someone takes a warlike action that is ultimately a good thing, it could be good Karma.

    Good karma is as binding as bad karma and it is not the aim of buddhism to “earn” good karma but to end karma (for oneself).

    Btw, a buddhist has no soul- just in case that comes up next.

  43. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 5:53 pm  

    Shared Assumptions of Buddhism and Hinduism (Upanishads):

    1)Ordinary views concerning reality are inadequate and ultimately delusory(maya).

    2) Earthly existence is essentially flawed: we form false and improper attachments, and, as a consequence, reap a miserable existence. Through rebirth, we are locked into a vicious cycleof suffering and delusion. This cycle is called samsara.

    3) Ignorance (avidy_) prevents us from understanding reality as it truly is, and prevents us from perceiving the true nature of our own reality.

    4) Through dispelling ignorance, we can learn to perceive the true nature of reality, and to free ourselves from false and improper attachments. As a result, we can eliminate suffering, and escape the vicious cycle of eternal suffering.

    5) Self-effort is mandatory: we cannot look to any external forces to solve our problems for us.

    The major difference is Buddhism rejects the Upanishads’ idea of an abiding universal “self” or soul, the Atman. It has the concept of the non-self or non-soul, anatman, instead.

  44. SajiniW — on 22nd September, 2006 at 5:55 pm  

    The reason Buddhist temples in SL have Hindu shrines is due to former Kings having had to import wives from India. The wives & their ladies in waiting needed somewhere to pray, Hinduism practices (e.g. praying for what you’d like) spread in popularity & the kovils did v.well thanks to the numbers coming with offerings of money & goodies.

    Hence, tagging a kovil onto your temple was a profitable plan. Cue their popularity.

    I personally think the JHU (monk party) have no role in SL politics – the clergy are supposed to be impartial. Anyway, both sides in the conflict have people of all races/religions fighting for them – what’s at stake isn’t religious.

  45. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 6:03 pm  

    Just like the earliest vedic hindus had animal sacrifices – including cattle- and had few restrictions against eating meat, the Buddha himself evidently ate meat and taught nothing of vegetarianism. It is Jainism’s influence that led to the incorporation of a non-meat dietary tradition in the two religions.

  46. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 6:10 pm  

    Buddhist shrines all over south east asia from cambodia to bali often have a few hindu deities onsite. Chinese buddhist temples have Guan Yin(kannon in Japanese), an avolokiteswara incarnation, as well as taoist deities like Tua Peh Kong. Buddhism for the masses just does not work without these humanising additions.

  47. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 6:21 pm  

    >>personally think the JHU (monk party) have no role in SL politics – the clergy are supposed to be impartial.

    Oh please! A political party (JHU)that fields 260 candidates -ALL MONKS- in the 2004 elections is a long, long way from impartiality.

    >> Anyway, both sides in the conflict have people of all races/religions fighting for them – what’s at stake isn’t religious

    Maybe not for you, or even the Tamil tigers. but the monks from the JHU campaigned on a platform for
    ” establishing a dharmarajya in Sri Lanka, the JHU drew support mainly from the urban, middle-class voters, …. who were opposed to the peace negotiations with the LTTE, shifted loyalties to the JHU, which presented to the electorate a militant version of Sinhalese nationalism along with a message of moral regeneration.”

    http://www.hindu.com/2004/04/12/stories/2004041201111000.htm

  48. Chairwoman — on 22nd September, 2006 at 6:26 pm  

    Mirax – I assure you that there are many Buddhist groups who ‘earn points’ by chanting, and attempt also to ‘store up good Karma’. Also certainly the Sokka Gakai’s aim is not only one’s personal human revolution (ie working towards enlightment), but also Kosen Rufu. I didn’t pull this out of a hat. Dammit, I did it for 7 years! But then, although Nichiren devotees revere Guatama, they believe that he is not the Buddha for this age, and that Nichiren is, as it was he who decided that the Lotus Sutra was his ultimate gift to humanity.

  49. SajiniW — on 22nd September, 2006 at 6:29 pm  

    Mirax – I’m trying to agree with you – the JHU are a bunch of racist gimps who should have no role in the political process thanks to the path they’ve chosen to follow. I don’t approve of them/their policies/their supporters.

  50. mirax — on 22nd September, 2006 at 7:07 pm  

    Sajini- my apologies for misunderstanding you.

    Chairwoman,
    >> it was he who decided that the Lotus Sutra was his ultimate gift to humanity.

    Wait a sec, you do know that the Lotus Sutra was not authored by Nichiren, right? He merely focussed his teachings upon it, as he considered it the highest of Buddhist teachings. The Lotus sutra was probably put together in BCE 1 in Kashmir.It is supposed to be a discourse delivered by Sakyamuni himself.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra

    as for the ‘merit’ earning, yeah it exists as it is possibly a much easier concept for most lay buddhists than the somewhat counter-intuitive ‘all karma, good and bad, binds you’ concept.

    Only the discipline of Dharma can free one and those who do not devote themselves fully to the religious life (i.e., by entering the Sangha) cannot expect to achieve nirvana within the present life, but they can build up merit,providing a better rebirth, in which they might be able to live the religious life more fully. Hence merit is simply a means to a better chance of working out one’s dharma, not a means of achieving nirvana itself.

  51. Chairwoman — on 22nd September, 2006 at 7:29 pm  

    Mirax, sorry you misread me. Of course he didn’t write it, and yes I did know it was written by Shakyamuni Buddha, if you read the sentence again with a different inflection you will see that ‘his’ refers to Shakyamuni Buddha and not Nichiren.

  52. GR — on 4th October, 2006 at 7:58 pm  

    My dear Anna.

    This is regarding the comments you have made on 22nd September, 2006 at 4:10 pm.

    You have a wrong perception on Srilankan’s and Buddhism in Sri Lanka. I was worried after going through your comments realizing that you have not only criticized the religion but also the country.

    Yes there’s a civil war going on in the country. But the comments you have made are confusing the minds of people who reads your words.

    If u can send me an email address I can send u a Power Point Presentation including how the LTTE have treated Sinhalese, Christian and Muslim also how they have killed their own Tamil brothers.

    What you have written is not what you have experienced by your self but I’m sure you have phrased them from some where else.

    So let me correct you by sending you the true artifacts.

    Always with Metta.
    Live long my friend

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